By Sabatino Moscati, Wolfram Von Soden, Anton Spitaler, Professor Emeritus of Semitic Languages and of Ethiopian Studies Edward Ullendorff
An advent to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages
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Additional resources for An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages: Phonology and Morphology (Porta Linguarum Orientalium)
G. g. dilk "to kill", bni "to build"). 6 c), so that the incorporation of original semivowel radicals (dwk, bny) may be ascribed to artificial reconstruction. g. Sem. kalb "dog") which have to be differentiated from the verbal ones which, in their turn, are to be divided into those indicating states or conditions and those connoting actions (cf. 2). The distinction between the three semantic spheres of noun, adjective and stative verb, and active verb is reflected in a differentiation in the structure of the root.
Ku~~um alongside ku~um "cold"); Reb. gamal "camel", pluT. g'dmallim. g. Syr. *qalil "little" > qallil, *'atana "she-ass" > 'attana. 2. o. We lack sufficient data to determine the position of stress in Proto-Semitic or to distinguish clearly between expiratory stress and pitch accent. To restrict ourselves to the more readily identifiable expiratory stress, we may say, in the first place, that in Proto-Semitic it is unlikely to have had distinctive or phonemic status; and, secondly, that the almost complete agreement between Arabic and Akkadian might facilitate a hypothetical reconstruction of Proto-Semitic stress modelled on these two languages.
Morphology A. Preliminaries 1. 1. g. ktb "to write", qbr "to bury", qrb "to approach", etc. These roots (root morphemes) constitute a fundamental category of lexical morphemes (cf. 564-68). The linguistic reality of consonantal roots is shown not only by their lexical implications but also by the laws governing the compatibility or otherwise of radicals (which do not concern the vowels: cf. 10) and in the transcription of foreign words. Only the pronouns and some particles lie outside this system of roots.