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By B. Russell

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The arguments for the necessity of a hierarchy of languages are overwhelming, and I shall henceforth assume their validitv. * ,, • These arguments are derived from the paradoxes; their applicability to the words "true" and "false" is derived from the paradox of the liar. e. "there is a proposition p such that I assert p and p is false... 30, he says "becween 5 . 29 and 5 . 3 I I make a false statement", but that throughout the rest of the two minutes concerned he says nothing. Let us call this statement q...

Practical convenience mainly determines what sensible qualities shall have names. In any given case, a number of words are applicable to what we experience. ue square. We may say "red inside blue" or "circle inside square". Each is an immediate verbal expression of an aspect of what we are seeing; each is completely verified by what we are seeing. If we are interested in colours we shall say the one, and if in geometry the other. The words that we use never exhaust all that we could say about a sensible expetjence.

Positions empirically. 46 SENTENCES, SYNTAX, A N D PARTS OF S P E E C H No proposition containing the (in the singular) can be strictly proved by empirical evidence. We do not know that Scott was the author of Waverley; what we know is that he was an author of Waverley. For aught we know, somebody in �1ars may have also written Waverley. To prove that Scott was the author, we should have to survey the universe and find that everything in it either did not write Waverley or was Scott. This is beyond our powers.

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