By Alene Moyer
This paintings seriously addresses the age debate in moment language acquisition stories, proposing an in-depth research of things that expect overseas accessory. Quantitative and qualitative analyses ascertain that cognitive, social, and mental components give a contribution to attainment, and that organic affects needs to accordingly be thought of along those crucial features of learner event.
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Additional resources for Age, Accent and Experience in Second Language Acquisition: An Integrated Approach to Critical Period Inquiry (Second Language Acquisition (Buffalo, N.Y.), 7.)
Oyama (1976) tested 60 Italian male learners of ESL (English as a Second Language) to compare the effects on phonological attainment of age of arrival in the US and length of exposure. Using a read-aloud task, as well as narration, subjects were rated for degree of foreign accent. The results indicated a very strong effect for age of arrival, but not for number of years of exposure. Olson and Samuels (1982) discovered that older subjects performed better than younger subjects on an imitation task of phoneme drills, although these results demonstrate only immediate imitative ability.
Seliger (1983) reports that those learners who seek input and the opportunity to interact in the second language are more effective and proficient in the output they generate. Obviously, some learners seek more opportunities to interact than others, possibly owing to risk-taking tolerance, motivation, etc. Which input sources learners attend to most (peers, teacher, parents, and so forth) are probably influenced by individual judgments of status or willingness to go outside of one’s group or individual identity boundaries (Beebe, 1985).
These questions are particularly relevant for the realm of phonology, taken up in the following sections. Ultimate Attainment in L2 Phonology Lenneberg’s CPH sets up a critical window of opportunity, beyond which the development of native pronunciation is unlikely, if not impossible. He made special note of the intractability of foreign accent after the age of 9 or 10, and this is largely upheld by subsequent evidence, even among advanced learners (Moyer, 1999). ’ Many researchers believe that phonological attainment is limited by a much earlier age than Lenneberg proposed.