By Terje Mathiassen
Publication through TERJE MATHIASSEN
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Extra info for A Short Grammar of Lithuanian
In contrast to qualitative adjectives are " relational " adjectives, which have the meaning " of or from or associated with Х " (" French, " "female " ( woman's), "world," "hydrogen," "verbal," " language " (as in languagefamily), and so on). Relational adjectives do not build short forms. The most frequent suffixes build ing relational adjectives are -ск-, -ов-, and -и-. The suffix -и- also builds many qualitative adjectives, which normally have short forms. The existence or non existence of short forms in adjectives built with this suffix will Ье evident in the vocabularies from the presence or absence of а slash between the и and the consonant immediately preceding it ; the slash indicates that а vowel is inserted in the zero (masculine short) form (see page 42).
LESSON VO CABULARIES Treatmeпt of eпtries iп the separate (lessoп) vocabularies is basically the same as iп the geпeral vocabulary, except that coпsideraЫy more atteпtioп is paid to the breakdowп of words. g. пред-став-и-ть А hypheп itself is reпdered Ьу ап еп dash : во-ен-н-о-мор-ск-6й Iп additioп, as we said above, roots iп the vocabularies which also occur iп the Root List are giveп iп bo\dface ; procedures for recoveriпg the more basic root iп the Root List from а variaпt which may occur iп а vocabulary were discussed iп the precediпg sectioп.
Cf. наука СЛУГ УК The student, in order to \ook up the root, needs to know what consonant the mutated variant implies. The fol\owing tаЬ\е describes Russian consonant muta tion and alternations : ТABLE OF MUTATIONS CONJUGATION AND VERBAL DERIVATION NOMINAL AND ADJECТIVAL AND COMPARISON OF ADJECТIVES д т з с ст ск ц ж > > ч > ж > ш > щ > щ > ч м > 6 > п > в > ф > мл' бл' пл' вл' фл' ж CHURCH SLAVONIC MUTATIONS DERIVATION ж г > к > ч х > ш д г > к > ч х > ш ск > щ ц > ч К > Ц т > > жд щ The following quite isolated mutations also occur : д before т > ст т г к Ьеfоге т > ч(ь) Approaching these consonant mutations in the reverse direction, one may set up for the student the following tаЬ\е of expectations : ж г д з к х ш ч с ц т г щ ск ст т мл' бл' пл' вл' пл' м 6 п в ф ц к жд д с д т INTRODUCTION AND GUIDE ТО ТНЕ 18 OF ТНЕ USE VOCABULARIES In addition, а final root -й may alternate with -в : КРОЙ : по-крой-ут cover КРОВ : по-кров cover EXERCJSE Estimate the original final root consonant in the following words.