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Download A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science by John Losee PDF

By John Losee

ISBN-10: 0198700555

ISBN-13: 9780198700555

Designed for first-time readers of the topic, this stimulating advent bargains a historic exposition of differing perspectives at the philosophy of technology. With concise profiles featuring the most important philosophers whose contributions are mentioned during this ebook, Losee explores the long-argued questions raised by means of philosophers and scientists in regards to the right assessment of technology.

This new version contains modern advancements within the self-discipline, together with fresh paintings on theory-appraisal, experimental perform, the talk over clinical realism, and the philosophy of biology. Taking a balanced and informative process, this paintings is definitely the right introductory quantity.

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Note 1 G. S. Kirk and J. E. Raven, The Presocratic Philosophers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ), –. 5 Affirmation and Development of Aristotle’s Method in the Medieval Period The Inductive–Deductive Pattern of Scientific Inquiry Roger Bacon’s “Second Prerogative” of Experimental Science The Inductive Methods of Agreement and Difference Duns Scotus’s Method of Agreement William of Ockham’s Method of Difference 28 28 29 29 30 Evaluation of Competing Explanations Roger Bacon’s “First Prerogative” of Experimental Science Grosseteste’s Method of Falsification Ockham’s “Razor” 31 31 32 34 The Controversy about Necessary Truth Duns Scotus on the “Aptitudinal Union” of Phenomena Nicolaus of Autrecourt on Necessary Truth as Conforming to the Principle of Non-contradiction 35 35 36 Robert Grosseteste (c.

Hence he acknowledged that selection of one of these competing models was based on considerations other than successful fit. Copernicus argued for the superiority of his own system by appealing to “conceptual integration” as a criterion of acceptability. He contrasted his own unified model of the solar system with Ptolemy’s collection of separate models, one for each planet. He noted, moreover, that the sun-centred system explains the magnitudes and frequencies of the retrograde motions of the planets.

C. G. Wallis, in Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler—Great Books of the Western World, vol.  (Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. ), . 1 2 * Neptune’s position in its orbit at the time of discovery was such that the over-estimation of its distance from the sun did not greatly affect the accuracy of the prediction of its position against the background stars. 7 The Seventeenth-Century Attack on Aristotelian Philosophy I. Galileo The Pythagorean Orientation and the Demarcation of Physics 47 Theory of Scientific Procedure The Method of Resolution The Method of Composition Experimental Confirmation 48 49 49 50 The Ideal of Deductive Systematization 53 Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) was born at Pisa, of noble but impoverished parents.

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